- Inauguration of the UPC’s Diagonal Besòs Campus (14 September) and start of the activity of the new Barcelona East School of Engineering. This year also saw the launch of the Terrassa School of Industrial, Aerospace and Audiovisual Engineering.
- The University was the leading university in Catalonia in the number of European projects funded through the Horizon 2020 programme in the 2014-2015 period. It participated in 41 of almost 200 projects in which Catalan universities participated and led 13 of them.
- Five UPC researchers were awarded the 2015 Academia ICREA distinctions. Carlos Alemán, Marino Arroyo, David Carrera, Cristina Masoller and Luis Velasco received the ICREA Academia distinctions in recognition of the research they carry out at a Catalan public university. The researcher Cristina Canal was awarded a Starting Grant by the European Research Council.
- Within the departmental restructuring process at the University, the Department of History and Theory of Architecture and Communication Techniques and the UPC-Caminos-BarcelonaTech Federation for coordinating and promoting the academic activity of the ETSECCPB and the Department of Civil Engineering were set up.
- THE WUR by Subject. The UPC, the only Spanish university to be ranked and one of the world’s top 100 universities in Computer Sciences.
- National Taiwan University (NTU) general ranking. The University was ranked as one of the world’s top 100 institutions and the top university in Spain in the field of Engineering.
- 2016-2017 THE ranking. The top technical university in Spain and among the world’s top 500 in this ranking.
- QS 50 Under 50 ranking. The UPC continued to be the top technical university in Spain in this ranking.
- 2016 Shanghai Ranking. The UPC was ranked for the first time as one of the world’s 400 best universities.
- Amal Hadweh, promoter of the Palestinian-Israeli Women’s Dialogue programme, was awarded an honorary doctoral degree by the UPC for fostering dialogue and women’s empowerment.
- The new departments resulting from the University's departmental restructuring are the Department of Architectural Technology; the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; the Department of Project and Construction Engineering; the Department of Mining, Industrial and ICT Engineering; the Department of Physics; and the Department of Mathematics. In this first restructuring phase, the number of departments has been reduced from 42 to 33.
- Approval of the creation of the Terrassa School of Industrial, Aerospace and Audiovisual Engineering (ESEIAAT), which is the result of merging the Terrassa School of Engineering (EET) and the Terrassa School of Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering (ETSEIAT).
- Creation of the Barcelona East School of Engineering (EEBE). The new school on the Diagonal Besòs Campus is the result of the Barcelona College of Industrial Engineering (EUETIB), previously an affiliated school, becoming a UPC school. Degree courses and research groups in the fields of Chemical Engineering and Materials Engineering, which had until now been taught or located at the ETSEIB, will be moved to the new school.
- General ranking of the National Taiwan University (NTU). The UPC has risen from the 445th position to the 439th position with respect to last year. The ranking classifies the 500 best universities in the world according to their scientific output and the impact of their scientific publications. The UPC continues to be the top university in Spain in the Engineering field and in the Electrical Engineering and Civil Engineering subjects. For the first time, it is also the best in Spain in the subject of Mathematics.
- Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings (WUR). The UPC is ranked in the 401-500 range worldwide and is the leading technical university in Spain, according to the information published on 30 September. Among universities in Spain, the UPC is ranked in the 6-9 range; among universities in Catalonia, it is ranked in the 4th-5th position.
- QS World University Rankings. The Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) rises 38 positions (to 299th place) in the 2015 QS World University Ranking and maintains its position as the top university in Spain in Engineering and Technology.
- September saw the opening of the new facilities of the Igualada School of Engineering. The new facilities act as a bridge between education, research and technology transfer and the worlds of industry and business.
- For the first time, the UPC was ranked in the general classification of the Shanghai ranking (Academic Ranking of World Universities). In addition, the UPC improved its position in the field of Engineering, Technology and Computer Science, in which it was ranked in the 100-151 range, and maintained the position of previous years in the fields of Mathematics and Computer Science.
- The first of the European Space Agency’s business incubators in Spain was set up on the Baix Llobregat Campus. Its aim is to make it easier to set up companies whose business is based on the use of space systems and technologies for terrestrial applications.
- Seventeen of the UPC’s master’s degrees were awarded the Catalan government’s International Master’s Programme distinction. The UPC is the Catalan university with the greatest number of master’s degrees to have been awarded this distinction.
- FUTUR (futur.upc.edu), the new portal for the UPC’s science and technology output, was launched. It provides open access to the scientific publications of its researchers for the first time, as well as providing information on these researchers’ careers.
- U-Multirank, a new university ranking by the European Commission, ranked the UPC among the 150 best universities in the world for bachelor’s degrees. It also ranked it among the 160 best universities in the world for master’s and doctoral degrees.
- Enric Fossas, professor of Automatic Control and doctor of Mathematics, was elected rector of the UPC in the second round of the elections held on 13 November.
- Ramon Carbonell Santacana, has been appointed Chairman of the Board of Trustees.
- The UPC is the only public university in Spain to have taken part in the 2013 GSMA Mobile World Congress, which was held in Barcelona from 25 to 28 February. At the Congress, the University promoted the latest innovations in mobile technology, the technological capacity of its research groups working in the field and the potential applications of this technology in businesses.
- The UPC's OpenCourseWare portal gains international recognition. The new version of the UPC's OpenCourseWare web portal was awarded the Outstanding New Site prize by the OpenCourseWare consortium, for promoting open online access to the academic content and teaching materials that are used in university degree courses.
- The Innotex Centre, the Catalan R&D centre for the European textile industry, began to operate in February. Some of the main figures for the Innotex Centre are the following: it has a team of 60 highly qualified specialists and researchers, 16 of whom are PhD holders; it has a floor area of 4,450 m2; it collaborates with over 1,000 companies and more than 50% of its projects are carried out in conjunction with industry; and it has demonstrated its technological know-how by registering some 20 patents.
- UPC technology reaches Mars. ‘Curiosity’, the robotic vehicle that contains wind sensor chips designed at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya · BarcelonaTech (UPC), is sending signals to Earth from the meteorological station on Mars.
- The UPC is the top public university in Catalonia and the top technical university in Spain in terms of the number of patents filed from 2000 to 2010. During the same period, it was the Catalan public university and Spanish technical university with the highest percentage of international students gaining a doctoral degree in Spain, according to the CYD Foundation report “Las universidades españolas. Una perspectiva autonómica 2012". It also came first in the ranking of university participation in PID and CENIT R&D projects in 2010 in Spain.
- The UPC was the top Spanish technical university in terms of scientific output. In 2011, it was ranked first of the technical universities in Spain for research output and productivity at Spanish public universities, sixth of the higher education institutions in terms of output and seventh in terms of productivity.
- The UPC is ranked one of the world's top 100 young universities. For another year running, the UPC features in the ranking of the world's top 100 universities that are less than 50 years old.
- The UPC is the top Spanish technical university and is ranked third in Catalonia and fifth in Spain as a scientific institution in the new edition of the SIR (Scimago Institutions Rankings) World Report, published on 28 September, in which institutions are ranked on their scientific output published in specialist journals.
- The UPC has entered the Shanghai Ranking for the first time, where it occupies positions in the 151-200 range both in the engineering, technology and computer science section and in the computer science and mathematics section.
- The UPC is the Spanish university with the most patents (212), the second in the creation of technology-based companies (57) and also the second for its participation in European research projects (224), according to the 2002-2010 IUNE Observatory Report.
- On 2 May, the Governing Council approved regulations on the use of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya · BarcelonaTech’s name and corporate identityand its corporate identity guidelines.
- UPC Abroad Programme: education, research, innovation, development cooperation and strategic alliances in over 130 countries. The Programme, which was presented on 15 March, brings together and promotes the international activity of the UPC as a strategic action towards internationalisation.
- The UPC is one of the first universities to have premises in China. The new university hub is being organised through the Sino-Spanish Campus (SSC@TU) at Tongji University. The SSC, created in collaboration with the Technical University of Madrid, aims to become a reference point for members of the UPC who are visiting China and will promote relations, mobility and double-degree agreements.
- The Governing Council, who convened on 9 February, approved the UPC's Economic Viability Plan (PlaVe) for the period 2011-2014. It is an open document that outlines money-saving measures, but it is also a roadmap towards increasing the University's income that prioritises maintaining quality in teaching and research.
- The UPC continues to be top-rated Catalan university and now ranks first among Spanish Uuniversities and fourth among European universities in the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities compiled by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). The UPC is also ranked first among Catalan universities, third among Spanish universities and 30th among European universities by 4 International Colleges and Universities (4ICU).
- During a special meeting held on 21 December, the University Senate approved the plan to adapt the Statutes of the UPC, with 108 votes in favour, 90 against and 6 blank.
- The rector of the UPC is elected chairman of the CINDA University network at the General Assembly, held at the University of Panama on 20 October. He is the first European rector to chair the network, which links 36 universities in Latin America and Europe. With a history that goes back over 30 years, CINDA's mission is to share knowledge in the context of university policy and management in the public sector.
- The UPC hosts a ceremony to mark the start of the 2011-2012 academic year in the Catalan university system. Josep Lluís Bonet, chairman of Fira de Barcelona (a trade fair ground), gives a lecture entitled ‘Fira de Barcelona: A Blueprint for the Country‘. The event, presided over by Andreu Mas-Colell, the Minister of Economy and Knowledge, affords an opportunity to give a series of awards: the Jaume Vicens Vives awards, special doctoral awards for the 2008-2009 academic year, UPC medals, and the 12th UPC Award for research projects carried out by upper secondary and higher training cycle students.
- Coinciding with the opening ceremony for the 2011-2012 academic year in the Catalan university system, an exhibition entitled Photos for the 40th Anniversary of the UPC is launched to mark this historic milestone. The photos show significant moments in the institution's history, from Albert Einstein's visit, to the start of construction work on the North Campus and the transformation of the Torre Girona chapel to house the MareNostrum supercomputer.
- Two research centres associated with the UPC are among eight recognised as Spanish research centres of excellence, selected in the first edition of the Severo Ochoa programme, which is run by Ministry of Science and Innovation. The centres singled out for their outstanding work are the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre – Centro Nacional de Supercomputación (BSC-CNS) and the Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO). They are awarded the distinction, which remains valid for four years, for being among the best in the world in their respective fields of research. Each will receive one million euros a year over this period and benefit from preferential access to scientific facilities, more flexibility for hiring researchers, and an increased ability to attract sponsorship assistance. The selection was made by three committees of international researchers, headed by three Nobel laureates.
- The Terrassa School of Optics and Optometry (EUOOT) changes its original name in Catalan from "Escola Universitària d'Òptica i Optometria de Terrassa" to "Facultat d'Òptica i Optometria de Terrassa" (Official Gazette of the Catalan Government, 30 August). The change does not affect the English translation.
- At a meeting held at the UPC on 15 July, the General Council of Rectors of the Vives Network chooses a new chairman to replace UPC rector Antoni Giró at the end of his six-month term in the office. The new chairman is Vicent Climent, rector of Jaume I University. Joan Viñas, former rector of the University of Lleida, will serve as standing vice-chairman for the next two years. El Consejo General de rectores de la Red Vives, reunido en la UPC el 15 de julio, ha puesto fin al semestre de presidencia de la Red Vives de Universidades y al mandato del rector Antoni Giró, como presidente. Ha tomado el relevo Vicent Climent, rector de la Universitat Jaume I, y el ex rector de la Universitat de Lleida, Joan Viñas, ha asumido la vicepresidencia permanente para los próximos dos años.
- The Statutes Committee presents a preliminary draft of the UPC Statutes. Following incorporation of the amendments, comments and suggestions made by members of the University Senate and the Board of Trustees, the process of developing the new UPC Statutes will be carried forward. It is expected that the draft will be discussed and voted on at an extraordinary meeting of the University Senate in the autumn.
- The rector of the UPC, Antoni Giró, visits Tongji University on 24 April to discuss the details of new lines of collaboration with one of China's most prestigious universities. The visit results in the signing of a double-degree agreement between the Barcelona School of Civil Engineering and Tongji University's School of Civil Engineering, and an agreement with the Institute of Mechanics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, under which five Chinese scholarships holders will have the opportunity to pursue doctoral studies at the UPC each year.
- The Til·lers Building is inaugurated on 1 March. The building will house the institutional services and bodies most closely involved in the UPC's external relations (Board of Trustees, Ombuds Office, etc). The six-floor, 3,542-m2 building is located on the grounds of Torre Girona, on the UPC's North Campus.
- The Innovation and Technology Centre (CIT.UPC) is set up to provide service to the UPC's 19 TECNIO research centres, one of the main focal points for university-based innovation and technology transfer in Spain. The aim is to provide state-of-the-art engineering for leading-edge research and boost the competitiveness of the productive fabric.
- Agrópolis, a new science and technology pole, is inaugurated on 18 October in Viladecans, Baix Llobregat, within the framework of the UPC Research and Innovation Park. The aim is to make the 10-ha space—an initiative launched by the Barcelona School of Agricultural Engineering—a leading centre for research, knowledge transfer and teaching in the field of agri-food, biotechnological, environmental and landscape engineering.
- The UPC assumes the chairmanship of the Vives University Network. As the new chairman, UPC rector Antoni Giró's objectives include improving coordination of actions undertaken by the Network and stabilising the leadership structure by extending the term of the chairmanship from six months to two years.
- The Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC) changes its name to the Castelldefels School of Telecommunications and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC) (Official Gazette of the Catalan Government, 10 November).
- The UPC becomes the first university in Spain to receive ISO 20000 quality certification, issued by AENOR, for its e-learning and e-mail services, provided by UPCnet.
- The Terrassa College of Industrial Engineering changes its name to the Terrassa School of Engineering (Official Gazette of the Catalan Government, 26 January).
- On 10 March, Professor Antoni Giró Roca is re-elected rector of the UPC.
- The Igualada College of Industrial Engineering (EUETII) changes its name to the Igualada School of Engineering (EII) (Official Gazette of the Catalan Government, 28 May).
- In April, the UPC opens an office in Brussels to facilitate dealings with the European Commission's Directorate-General for Research.
- In July, the Institute of Photonic Sciences becomes a UPC-affiliated research institute.
- The UPC has more master's courses approved for funding under the European Union's Erasmus Mundus programme than any other university. The seven master's courses will start in the 2010-2011 academic year.
- In October, the K2M building in the UPC Research and Innovation Park and the library of the Barcelona School of Architecture are inaugurated.
- In November, an honorary doctorate is conferred on José Antonio Martín Pereda, the father of photonics in Spain.
- The Barcelona Knowledge Campus, a joint initiative of the UPC and UB, is recognised as an International Campus of Excellence by an international committee headed by representatives of the Ministry of Education.
- On 17 December, the foundation stone is laid for the Diagonal Besòs Campus. The new campus, which covers an area of 100,000 m2, will be used for teaching and research in the field of industrial engineering.
- In May, the Barcelona School of Agricultural Engineering is fully integrated in the UPC following the signing of an agreement to dissolve the Industrial School Consortium of Barcelona (CEIB).
- In June, Joaquim Boixareu is named chairman of the Board of Trustees.
- In July, an agreement is signed between the Barcelona City Council on the one hand, and the University of Barcelona and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya on the other. The agreement resolves a number of administrative and planning issues and lays the groundwork for strengthening the Avinguda Diagonal area where the North and South Campuses are located. As a result of the agreement, work is done to upgrade the infrastructure on Carrer Jordi Girona. The UPC also upgrades the façades of its buildings that face this street.
- In September, the first stage of work on the Gaia building, located on the Terrassa Campus, is completed, and the facility starts to open its doors to research groups.
- Also in September, Xavier Ortega is appointed as the UPC's ombuds officer. He replaces José Navarro, who retired the previous July.
- In the same month, the School of Professional & Executive Development, run by the Fundació Politècnica de Catalunya, begins to carry out activities at the Tech Talent Centre in the 22@BCN district.
- September sees the launch of e-informacions, the UPC's online newsletter. At the same time, the institutional publication Informacions updates its layout and content to become the UPC's institutional magazine.
- In November, the first UPC Debate Forum is held. The topic is the quality and security of Catalonia's power supply.
- On 8 March, Professor Antoni Giró Roca is elected rector of the UPC.
- During the academic year, the offering of EHEA-adapted master's degrees is approved. The courses will be offered starting in the 2006-2007 academic year. The UPC offers more official master's degrees delivered jointly with universities abroad than any other Catalan university.
- In the research area, the University approves its Plan for Research, Development and Innovation: Horizon 2010, aimed at promoting structural transformations that will allow teaching and research staff to boost the volume and impact of research and transfer activities for the benefit of society and the University. The plan sets out a direction for action on various matters, such as attracting talent and providing training to produce researchers who contribute to developing the industrial fabric. It also regulates the UPC's involvement in investee companies.
- In January, the second phase of the Omega building is inaugurated on the North Campus.
- During the first term, the MareNostrum supercomputer is installed in a space at the Torre Girona chapel on the North Campus. The facility is under the administrative control of the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre – Centro Nacional de Supercomputación (BSC-CNS), a centre launched and run by a consortium of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science; the Catalan Ministry of Universities, Research and the Information Society, and the UPC.
- Two new buildings are inaugurated on the Baix Llobregat Campus: one houses the Barcelona College of Agricultural Engineering (EUETAB, later the ESAB), and the other, the Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO).
- In April, a new UPC library opens in Manresa, bringing together the collections of several university institutions in the city, the College of Manresa, the Bages University Foundation (a centre affiliated with the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona), and the Open University of Catalonia's Bages Support Centre.
In Vilanova i la Geltrú, the city council provides the UPC with spaces in the Neapolis building, making it possible to extend the Vilanova i la Geltrú Technology Centre and the School of Engineering.
- The Research and Technology Transfer Centre (CRITT) opens at the Vallès School of Architecture.
- Ramón Folch is named chairman of the Board of Trustees.
- The International Barcelona Conference on Higher Education is held. The event is launched and organised by the Global University Network for Innovation (GUNI), which brings together representatives from countries on five continents to debate issues affecting universities and find solutions that fit the specific needs of each context. The rector of the UPC is the president of the network, and the conference will be held annually at the UPC (once every two years from 2007). A report on the situation of higher education in the world is presented at each conference.
- On February 12, the Parliament of Catalonia adopts the Law on Catalan Universities (LUC), the new regulatory framework for the Catalan university system.
- In May, the University Senate approves the text of the new UPC Statutes.
- A collaboration agreement covering the development of a pilot programme of degrees adapted to the European Higher Education Area is concluded with the Ministry of Universities, Research and the Information Society. The programme will start in the 2004-2005 academic year.
- The Interdisciplinary Higher Education Centre (CFIS) is launched. The Centre offers interdisciplinary science and technology studies for students from all over Spain who excel academically and are highly motivated.
- Josep Ferrer Llop is elected rector by a weighted vote in which all members of the university community are eligible to take part.
- Joaquim Molins is chosen to act as chairman of the Board of Trustees, a position he will hold until 2004.
- In September, the first building is inaugurated in the Mediterranean Technology Park, on the Baix Llobregat Campus.
- In October, the Barcelona Technology Park is inaugurated on the South Campus in Barcelona.
- The Vilanova i la Geltrú Technology Centre and the Manresa Technology Centre are launched with the aim of supporting locally based companies and boosting their competitiveness.
- The Multimedia School opens in Terrassa. It will later be merged with the Photography School to create the Image Processing and Multimedia Technology Centre (CITM), which will offer diploma programmes in Photography and Digital Media, and in Multimedia Studies.
- September sees the launch of UPCnet, a service run by the University to facilitate access to the internet.
- Work gets underway on the extension of the UPC's facilities in Manresa and on the new Baix Llobregat Campus in Castelldefels.
- The Industrial School Consortium of Barcelona (CEIB) —comprising the Government of Catalonia, the Barcelona Provincial Council, and the UPC—is established to integrate the Provincial Council's agriculture and engineering schools in the Catalan public university system.
- Miquel Roca i Junyent is elected chairman of the UPC's Board of Trustees, a position he will hold until 2002.
- The process of integrating the Barcelona College of Industrial Engineering (EUETIB) and the Barcelona College of Agricultural Engineering (EUETAB, later the ESAB)—both schools previously run by the Barcelona Provincial Council—begins.
- The Rector Gabriel Ferraté Library is inaugurated on the North Campus in Barcelona.
- Jaume Pagés i Fita is elected rector.
- Xavier LLobet Colom is elected chairman of the UPC's Board of Trustees, a position he will hold until 1997.
- Ediciones UPC, the publishing house of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. BarcelonaTech (UPC), is set up with the mission of disseminating written works by the members of the UPC community within the academic world and among professionals
- The Fundación Politécnica de Catalunya (now Fundació UPC) is launched to enhance and strengthen third-cycle studies and professional retraining programmes offered at the University—courses tailored to meet the needs of the business environment.
- The Terrassa Photography School is inaugurated in October.
- The School of Mathematics and Statistics (FME) is established. The School offers a diploma programme in Statistics and a new bachelor's degree in Mathematics. The University of Girona and the University of Lleida are also established this year. The UPC's schools in these cities are integrated in the new universities.
- The Centre for Development Cooperation is set up to promote contracts and exchanges between the UPC and university institutions in emerging countries, with a focus on educational programmes and the transfer of research results.
- The Baix Llobregat College of Engineering (now the Castelldefels School of Technology, EPSC) is set up. The institution is provisionally located in Sant Just Desvern but has since been relocated to the Baix Llobregat Campus in Castelldefels.
- The Association of Friends of the UPC, a project initiated by the Board of Trustees, is launched with the mission of reaching out to the broader society.
- In 1990, under a decree issued by the Government of Catalonia, the Merchant Navy School becomes part of the UPC and is renamed the Barcelona School of Nautical Studies (FNB).
- In December, Pere Duran Farell is named the first chairman of the UPC's Board of Trustees, a position he will hold until the end of 1993.
- The Universidad Politécnica de Barcelona changes its name to Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya to reflect its broader presence in Catalonia.
- On December 19, the Parliament of Catalonia adopts the Law on University Coordination and the Establishment of Boards of Trustees at Catalan Universities.
- The University Reform Law is adopted, paving the way for the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya to draft its statutes, which are approved by Royal Decree 232/1985 on 4 July.
- Gabriel Ferraté is re-elected as rector.
- The Terrassa School of Optics and Optometry (EUOOT) is established by a ministerial order issued on 7 October.
- The Barcelona School of Informatics (FIB) is established in March.
- Julián Fernández Ferrer is appointed as rector.
- The Barcelona School of Civil Engineering (ETSECCPB) starts to operate.
- The Terrassa College of Industrial Engineering (EUETIT), the Vilanova i la Geltrú College of Industrial Engineering (now the EPSEVG), the Barcelona College of Technical Architecture (now the EPSEB), and the Manresa College of Mining Engineering (now the EPSEB) all become part of the UPC. The Girona and Lleida Colleges of Agricultural Engineering also start to operate this year
- Gabriel Ferraté i Pascual is appointed as rector.
- The Manresa School starts offering studies in Industrial Engineering and changes its name to the Manresa College of Engineering (EUPM). Shortly afterwards, the Girona School of Agricultural Engineering also becomes a college, and teaching of first- and second-cycle courses starts in Lleida
- The Universidad Politécnica de Barcelona (UPB) is established in March. Initially it comprises the Barcelona School of Industrial Engineering (ETSEIB), the Terrassa School of Industrial Engineering (ETSEIT), the Barcelona School of Architecture (ETSAB), and several research institutes.
In 1984 the Universidad Politécnica de Barcelona changes its name to Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) to reflect its broader presence in Catalonia.
- Víctor de Buen is named rector of the new Universidad Politécnica de Barcelona.
- The Barcelona School of Telecommunications Engineering (ETSETB) is established.
- In 1970, the General Law on Education and Financing of the Educational Reform is passed. The law covers the entire educational system, from basic to university education, and grants universities a certain degree of autonomy and the power to determine knowledge control and verification procedures, the teaching system applied, and the educational and research scheme. The law provides for the incorporation of colleges of engineering and technical architecture in the university system.
In 1968, the Instituto Politécnico Superior [Polytechnic Higher Education Institute] is created by grouping together existing state technical schools of architecture and engineering in Barcelona, which were founded in the mid-19th century.
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